GENRE (JENIS TEXT)

SIMPLE GENRE

FOR

STUDENTS OF

JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL

(SMA/ MA)

By: Rusmanhaji

Published by ESS

Bekasi

2013

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE                                 i

TABLE OF CONTENTS              ii

GENRE (KINDS OF TEXTS)                1

  1. A.  Recount                                        3
  2. B.  News item                            7
  3. C.  Procedure                             10
  4. D.  Description                           15
  5. E.  Narrative                              19
  6. F.  Report                                  27
  7. G.  Analytical exposition             31

H. Hortatory exposition              34

  1. I.     Spoof                                    40
  2. J.   Explanation                          46
  3. K.  Discussion                            50
  4. L.   Review                                 55

M. Anecdote                              59

 

PREFACE

 

Al-hamdulillah buku “Simple Genre” ini telah selesai tersusun. Untuk memenuhi kebutuhan siswa SMA sesuai dengan kurikulum yang berbasis kompetensi dan berkarakter.

Buku ini berisi 13 macam jenis teks yang harus dipelajari siswa SMA mulai dari kelas X sampai XII.

Dalam buku ini disajikan jenis-jenis teks beserta ciri-ciri umumnya, yaitu tujuan , struktur, kebahasaan, contoh-contoh teks dan summary masing-masing teks. Juga disertai vocabulary maupun soal-soal.

Penyusun menyampaikan rasa terima kasih kepada semua pihak yang ikut andil dalam penerbitan buku ini.

Mudah-mudahan mendapat ridha Allah SWT dan menyebabkan ilmu yang bermanfaat amin.

 

Bekasi, 16 April 2013

Rusmanhaji

 

GENRE (KINDS OF TEXTS)

Jenis Teks

Genre much deals with kinds of texts.

Genre banyak berhubungan dengan jenis tek.

It has: ia memiliki

  1. 1.   Communicative purpose/social function (tujuan komunikasi)
  2. Generic structure/text organization (struktur teks)
  3. Linguistic features (ciri-ciri kebahasaan)

What is a text? (Apa teks itu?)

Texts consist of spoken or written words that have the purpose of conveying a message.

Teks terdiri dari kata-kata lisan atau tertulis yang bermaksud menyampaikan sebuah pesan.

The text types (Tipe teks)

There are two main categories of text type:  literary and factual.

Ada dua kategori utama pada  jenis teks yaitu: sastra dan fakta.

  1. Literary text type:

 

1)   Narrative

2)   Poems

3)   Drama

 

These text types are used to tell us about human experience usually in an imaginative way.

Jenis teks ini digunakan untuk menceritakan tentang pengalaman manusia biasanya dengan cara khayalan.

Their purpose is to make readers or listeners think, laugh, cry or be entertained.

Maksud mereka ialah membuat pembaca atau pendengar berpikir, tertawa, menangis atau terhibur.

  1. Factual text type

 

1)   Recount                    11) Discussion

2)   News item                 12) Review

3)   Procedure                  13) Anecdote

4)   Description

5)   Narrative

6)   Report

7)   Analytical Exposition

8)   Hortatory Exposition

9)   Spoof

10)        Explanation

 

—ooo0ooo—

 

Berikut ini bentuk-bentuk genre (Jenis teks)  dalam bahasa Inggris:

  1. A.  RECOUNT

(LAPORAN PERISTIWA, KEJADIAN ATAU KEGIATAN MASA LAMPAU)

1. Ciri Umum

a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose):

To retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining

(melaporkan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur).

b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):

 Orientation: memberikan informasi tentang siapa, di mana dan kapan

 Events: rekaman peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi, yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis

 Reorientation: pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan.

c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features): Menggunakan:

 nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang, hewan atau benda yang terlibat, misalnya David, the monkey, we dsb.

 action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan, misalnya go, sleep, run dsb.

 past tense, misalnya We went to the zoo; She was happy dsb.

 conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan, misalnya and, but, then, after that, dsb.

 adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat, waktu dan cara, misalnya yesterday, at my house, slowly dsb.

 adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns, misalnya beautiful, funny, dsb. Generic Structure/Text Organization Orientation: menunjukkan setting (tempat) dan memperkenalkan tokoh. Event 1 Event 2 Event 3 … dst. Reorientation: Penutup ataupun penekanan kembali Events: menceritakan apa yang terjadi secara berurutan.

 

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

Topic: Our trip to the Blue Mountain

Last Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. We stayed at David and Della’s house. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court.

On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. It was scary. Then, Mummy and I went shopping with Della.

We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats.

On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. We saw cockatoos having a shower. In the afternoon, we went home.

VOCABULARIES:

  1. 1.    Mountains      : pegunungan
  2. 2.    lots of : many: banyak
  3. 3.    tennis court   : lapangan tenis
  4. 4.    scary ks. Menakutkan
  5. 5.    scenic ks. permai, indah (of an area, view). s. railway jalan kereta api dengan/yang penuh pemandangan
  6. 6.    cockatoo kb. Kakatua
  7. 7.    having a shower       : mandi

 

  1. 3.   SUMMARY OF RECOUNT TEXT

o   Bacaan berbentuk recount adalah suatu kejadian yang pernah dialami, biasanya berbentuk laporan dan lain sebagainya.

o   Siswa perlu mempelajari recount text untuk menceritakan kejadian-kejadian nyata yang sudah dialami baik secara lisan maupun tulisan.

o   Standar kompetensi yang terkait dengan penguasaan jenis teks ini adalah mampu berkomunikasi secara lisan atau tulisan secara interaksional.

o   Generic Structure dari recount :

a.    Orientation : menyebutkan orang atau benda yang melakukan atau yang terlibat didalamnya serta waktu, tempat, situasi .

b.   Event: urutan kejadiaanya.

c.    Re-orientation : Rangkuman dari seluruh kejadian yang ada pada teks atau komentar pribadi yang dapat dimulai dari tahap mana saja sesuai dengan kompetensi yang dimiliki oleh setiap siswa.

 

—ooo0ooo—

 

  1. B.  NEWS ITEM

(Warta Berita)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose):

To inform readers, listeners, or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important

(memberitakan kepada pembaca, pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan).

b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):

  • Newsworthy events: kejadian inti/menceritakan kejadian-kejadiannya dalam bentuk yang sangat singkat.
  • Background events: menjelaskan apa yang terjadi, siapa yang terlibat, dalam situasi bagaimana.
  • Sources: komentar saksi kejadian, pendapat para ahli

c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features):

 Informasi singkat tertuang dalam headline

 Menggunakan action verbs

 Menggunakan saying verbs, misalnya say, tell, dsb.

 Menggunakan kata keterangan, misalnya badly injured, the most beautiful bride in the world Generic Structure/Text Organization Newsworthy event Background event Sources

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

Topic: Town ‘Contaminated

Newsworthy event

Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town.

Background events

Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. The accident, which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster, spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town, but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy.

Source

A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy.

Vocabularies :

  1. 1.    journalist                : wartawan
  2. 2.    evidence                 : kb. 1 fakta-fakta. 2 bukti. 3 keterangan, tanda , petunjuk. conflicting e. keterangan yang saling bertentangan. -kkt. menunjukkan.
  3. 3.    catastrophedisaster     :  kb. malapetaka, bencana alam.
  4. 4.    witnessed               : menyaksikan
  5. 5.    explosion                : kb. letusan, ledakan, letupan. e. of anger kemarahan yang meledak.
  6. 6.    submarine              : kb. kapal selam. s. chaser pemburu kapal selam. -ks. yang berhubungan dengan dasar laut. s. geology geology dasar laut.
  7. 7.    occurred      : took place    : terjadi
  8. 8.    refit              : kkt. (refitted) memperlengkapi lagi (a ship).
  9. 9.    thermal       : ks. yang berkaitan dengan panas. t. current arus panas.

10. secrecy        : kb. (j. -cies) sifat rahasia, kerahasiaan.

 

—ooo0ooo—

 

  1. C.  PROCEDURE

(Prosedur)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose):

To describe how something is accomplished through a sequence of actions or steps

(Memberi petunjuk tentang cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah).

b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):

 Goal                  : tujuan kegiatan

 Materials         : bahan-bahan

 Steps                : langkah-langkah

  1. c.    Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features):

Menggunakan:

 pola kalimat imperative, misalnya, Cut, Don’t mix, dsb.

 action verbs, misalnya turn, put, don’t, mix, dsb.

 connectives untuk mengurutkan kegiatan, misalnya then, while, dsb.

 adverbials untuk menyatakan rinci waktu, tempat, cara yang akurat, misalnya for five minutes, 2 centimetres from the top, dsb. Generic Structure/Text Organization Goal: Biasanya judulnya Materials – Steps (berupa metode)

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

Goal

How to Make a Cheese Omelet

Materials: –

Ingredients 1 egg, 50 g cheese, ¼ cup milk, 3 tablespoons cooking oil, a pinch of salt and pepper – Utensils Frying pan, fork, spatula, cheese grater, bowl, plate –

Steps

Method 1. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. Add milk and whisk well 4. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. Cook both sides 9. Place on a plate; season with salt and pepper 10. Eat while warm.

Topic: “How to boil an egg”

Do you know how to boil an egg? Well, this the way . First, heat a saucepan of water on the stove. Then put the egg in the boiling water. Next, heat it until it boils. Then, cook it  for three minutes. Remember, Leave the egg until it cools. Now, the egg is ready to serve. Finally serve it with pepper powder and salt.

Vocabularies:

  1. 1.    to boil             : merebus
  2. 2.    heat                : panaskan
  3. 3.    stove               : kompor
  4. 4.    pepper powder: bubuk merica

 

Topic: “How to cook rice”

First, wash some rice in cold water. Like this. Second, put the rice with some water in a pot. Then, boil and cool it slowly for about 20 minutes. (After 20 minutes) See, there is no more water now. After that, put the rice to the simmer and steam it for about 45 minutes. Now, the rice is ready to be served.

Vocabularies:

  1. 1.   Boil             : rebus
  2. 2.   Simmer        : mendidih dengan perlahan
  3. 3.   Steam          : kukus

 

 

 

Choose the correct answer

1. What kind of the text is it?

a.  recount            b. spoof           c. narrative    

d. report             e. procedure

2. What is the purpose of the text above?

a.  to retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining.

b. to present two points of view about an issue.

c.  to amuse or entertain and to deal with actual or vicarious experience in different ways.

d. to describe how something accomplished through a sequence of steps

e.  to describe a peculiar person, place or things.

3. Mention the generic structure of the text ?

a.  goal, events, reorientation

b. goal, materials and equipments, resolution

c.  orientation, events, steps

d. orientation, steps goal

e.  goal, materials and equipments/steps

4. What kind of verb is mainly used in the text?

a.  Mental verbs   b. linking verbs    c saying verbs  d. thinking verbs      e. action verbs

5. How many ingredients / materials are needed to cook rice?

a.  Four                c. only one               e. three

b. Two                 d. five

 

—ooo0ooo—

 


 

Summary of Procedure Text

a. Purpose:

-To help us do a task or make something. They can be a set of instructions or                                                                                                                             directions 

b. Text Organization:

     -Goal           :  (tujuan kegiatan)

     -Materials   :  (bahan-bahan)

     -Steps         : (langkah-langkah)   

c. Language Features:

–          Use of imperatives (pola kalimat imperatives) for example: Cut, Don’t mix ,etc.

–          Use of action verbs  (ex: turn, put, mix, etc.)

–          Use of connectives (untuk mengurutkan kegiatan) (eg: first, then, while, etc.)

–          Use of adverbial phrases (untuk menyatakan rinci waktu, tempat, cara yang akurat. (ex: for five minutes, 2 centimeters from the top)

–          —ooo0ooo—

 

  1. D.  DESCRIPTION

(Deskripsi/ Gambaran)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose):

To describe a particular person, place, or thing

(Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang, benda atau tempat tertentu).

b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):

· Identification: mengidentifikasi fenomena yang akan dideskripsikan

· Description: mendeskripsikan bagian-bagian, kualitas, ciri-ciri subjek, perilaku umum, sifat-sifat.

c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features):

Terfokus pada participant tertentu: misalnya my house, my cat, the museum, dsb. Menggunakan:

 simple present tense.

 detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek, misalnya It was a large open rowboat, a sweet young lady, dsb.

 berbagai macam adjectives, yang bersifat describing, numbering, classifying, misalnya, two strong legs, sharp white fangs, dsb.

 relating verbs untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek, misalnya, My mum is realy cool, It has very thick fur, dsb.

 thinking verbs dan feeling verbs untuk mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis tentang subjek, misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed, I think it is a clever animal, dsb.

 action verbs, misalnya Our new puppy bites our shoes, dsb.

 abverbials untuk memberikan informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut, misalnya fast, at the tree house, dsb.

 bahasa figurative, seperti simile, metafor, misalnya John is white as chalk, sat tight,dsb

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

Topic: MacQuarie University

Identification

Macquarie University is one of the largest universities in Australia. This year, in 2004, it celebrates its 40th anniversary.

Description

 The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt, Sydney, where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. In 1964, Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe, but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition.

The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe, Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features.

A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect.

Today, a railway station is under construction. In three years1 time, Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway, yet retaining its beautiful site.

Vocabularies:

  1. 1.    locate kkt. 1 menempatkan. 2 menemukan (a friend, book). -kki. menetap. to be located terletak
  2. 2.    rural ks. pedusunan, pedesaan, pedalaman. to live in a r. area tinggal di daerah pedalaman/pedesaan.
  3. 3.    retreat kb. 1 mundurnya (of troops). 2 tempat pengasingan diri. 3 tanda mundur. -kki. mundur.
  4. 4.    fringe kb. 1 pinggir (of town, of society). 2 golongan pinggir. 3 lingkaran pinggir. -kkt. menyusur. Grassy slopes f. the stream Lereng berumput menyusur sungai itu.
  5. 5.    vibrant ks. 1 bergetar (tones). 2 bersemangat (spirits).
  6. 6.    evolve kkt. menyusun, memperkembangkan. -kki. berkembang.
  7. 7.    recognition kb. 1 pengakuan (of a country, by the chairman). 2 pengenalan (by s.o.). 3 penghargaan (for outstanding service).
  8. 8.    Emphasis    :  penekanan
  9. 9.    under construction sedang dibangun

10. poised         : -kkt. memperseimbangkan

 

Questions:

  1. 1.   What is one of the largest universities in Australia.?
  2. 2.   Where is The university  located?
  3. 3.   What is under construction today?
  4. 4.   What has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect.?
  5. 5.   What kind of genre is the text?

 

  1. E.  NARRATIVE

(Cerita, Dongeng, Legenda)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose):

To ammuse, entertain, and to deal with actual or vicarious experience in different ways

(Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata, khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis, yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian)).

b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):

· Orientation: mengenalkan pengenalan tokoh, waktu, dan tempat

· Complication: pengembangan konflik

· Resolution: penyelesaian konflik

· Reorientation: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita.

 

 

c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features):

Menggunakan:

 nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang, hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita, misalnya, stepsisters, housework, dsb.

 adjectives yang membentuk noun phrase, misalnya, long black hair, two red apples, dsb.

 time connectives dan conjunctions untuk mengurutkan kejadian-kejadian, misalnya then, before that, soon, dsb.

 adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa, misalnya here, in the mountain, happily ever after,dsb.

 action verbs dalam past tense; stayed, climbed, dsb.

 saying verbs yang menandai ucapan seperti: said, told, promised, dan thinking verbs yang menandai pikiran, persepsi atau perasaan tokoh dalam cerita, misalnya thought, understood, felt, dsb.

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

Title: “WHY DO HAWKS HUNT CHEEK?”

Once upon a time a hawk fell in love with a hen. Then the hawk flew down from the sky and asked the hen, “Won’t you marry me?”

          Then the loved braved, strong hawk and wished to marry him. But she said, “I cannot fly as high as you can. If you give me time, I may learn to fly as high as you. Then, we can fly together.”

          The hawk agreed. Before he went away, he gave the hen a ring. “This is to show that you have promised to marry me,” said the hawk.

          So it happened that the hen had already promised to marry a rooster. So, when the rooster saw the ring, he became very angry. “Throw that ring away at once! Didn’t you tell the hawk that you’d already promised to marry me?” shouted the rooster. The hen was so frightened at the rooter’s anger that she threw away the ring immediately.

          When the hawk came the next day, the hen told him the truth. The hawk was so furious that he cursed the hen. “Why didn’t you tell me earlier? Now, you’ll always be scratching the earth, and I’ll always be flying above you to catch your children,” said the hawk.

The curse seemed to have come true.

 

Choose the correct answer:

1.   Why couldn’t the hen say “yes” right away? Because ….

(A). she didn’t love the hawk

(B). she had no ring to exchange

(C). it would make the rooster angry

(D). the hawk was too brave and strong

(E). she had to learn how to fly as high as the hawk

 

2.   What is the story about?

(A). A hen and a rooster.

(B). A hawk and his wife.

(C). A hen and her children.

(D). A rooster and his fiancé.

(E). A hawk, a hen and a rooster.

 

3.   “The hawk flew down from the sky and asked the hen, “Won’t you marry me?” (paragraph 1)

What does the underlined utterance mean?

(A). The wanted to marry the hawk

(B). The hen refused to marry the hawk

(C). The hen agreed to be the hawk’s wife

(D). The hawk proposed the hen to be his wife

(E). The hawk wanted to marry the hen at the sky

 

 

 

4.   Why was the rooster angry when he saw the ring?

(A). The hen had betrayed him

(B). The hen had stolen his ring

(C). The hen didn’t wear her own ring

(D). The ring was not good for the hen

(E). The ring was too small for the hen

 

5.   What can we learn from the story? We have to ….

(A). take care of our children

(B). keep our promise

(C). love one another

(D). listen to other

(E). marry soon

 

—ooo0ooo-

 

Title: “ALI BABA AND THE FORTY THIEVES”

There once was a poor woodcutter, named Ali Baba. He lived in the wooden house near the forest.

        One day, he was gathering wood in the forest when a band of thieves approached. He hid and watched them enter a cave that opened when they said to the words, “Alakazam, open!.” After they departed, Ali Baba stood before the cave and gave the command “Alakazam, open!.” He was surprised, the cave opened to reveal an enormous supply of gold and treasures. Ali Baba packed some of the gold on his donkeys and returned home.

        His brother Qasim was rich but hardhearted merchant, discovered Ali Baba’s new wealth, he demanded an explanation. The next day Qasim visited the cave and greedily gathered as much treasures as he could, but forgot the formula for leaving the cave. The thieves opened the cave and found Qasim over there. The leader of the thieves killed him.

        Qasim’s wife was worried why her husband did not come home for a day. She asked Ali Baba to look for him. Ali Baba went to the cave and was surprised that his brother killed. He brought his brother’s body home and one knew it and reported that to the leader of the thieves.

        The following day the leader of the thieves planned to kill Ali Baba and he came to his house. He tried to kill him, fortunately his slave, Murganah, helped him. She swung a sword and killed the leader of the thieves. Murganah freed Ali Baba from the murder.

        Finally Ali Baba married Murganah and they lived happily ever after.

Answer the following questions:

1.   Which paragraph is Orientation of the story?

2.   Which paragraphs are Complications of the story?

3.   Which paragraph is Resolution of the story?

4.   What is the theme/message of the story?

 

Title: “THE LION AND THE MOUSE”

Once, when a Lion was asleep, a little mouse began running up and down upon him; this soon wakened the Lion, who placed his huge paw upon him, and opened his big jaws to swallow him. “Pardon, O king,” cried the little Mouse, “ Forgive me this time, I shall never forget it; who knows but what I may be able to do you a turn some of these days?”

The Lion was so tickled at the idea of the Mouse being able to help him, that he lifted up his paw and let him go.

Some time after the Lion was caught in a trap, and the hunters, who desired to carry him alive to the king, tied him to a tree while they went in search of a wagon to carry him on.

Just then the little Mouse happened to pass by, and see the sad plight in which the Lion was.He went up to the lion and soon gnawed away the ropes that bound the king of the Beasts. “Wasn’t I right? “ said the little Mouse.

Moral: Little friends may prove great friends.(AESOP)

 

Questions:

  1. 1.   Who was the author of the story?
  2. 2.   Did the lion parden the mouse?
  3. 3.   Could the mouse help the lion?
  4. 4.   How did he help him?
  5. 5.   What is the message of the story?

 

 

Summary of Narrative Text

Purpose:

to amuse or entertain or to deal with ctual/imaginative experiences  in different ways.

Schematic Structure/Text Organization:

§ Orientation: sets the scene and introduces the participants (When? Who? Where?)

§ Complication: a crisis arises (What was the problem?)

§ Resolution: the crisis is resolved, for better or for worse (How was the problem resolved? How did the story end?)

§ Re-orientation: (optional stage)

§ Theme: Clear message

Linguistic/language features:

§ Specific participants

§ Action verbs (material processes)

§ Saying verbs (verbal processes)

§ Mental verbs (mental processes)

§ Linking verbs (relational processes)

§ Temporal connectives

§ Temporal circumstances

§ Spatial circumstances

§ Personal pronoun

§ Simple past

§ The use of Direct Indirect Speech.

 

  1. F.  REPORT

(Laporan Hasil Pengamatan)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose):

To describe the way things are, with reference to a range of natural, man-made, and social phenomena in our environment

(menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu, apa adanya, sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gejala alam, lingkungan, benda buatan manusia, atau gejala-gejala sosial. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa kesimpulan umum, misalnya, ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. Untuk membuat laporan semacam ini, siswa perlu mengamati dan membandingkan ikan paus dengan binatang lainnya yang memiliki ciri-ciri yang sama).

b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):

 General classification: pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan, keterangan, dan klasifikasinya

 Description: menceritakan fenomena apa yang sedang didiskusikan; berkaitan dengan parts, qualities, habits or behaviors.

c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features): Menggunakan:

 general nouns, seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Island’, dsb.

 relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri, misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia), dsb.

 action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku, misalnya lizards cannot fly, dsb.  present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum, misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg, dsb.

 istilah teknis, misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen, dsb.

 paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi.

 Tidak bersifat promotif

 Terdapat dalam ensiklopedia

 

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

Topic: THE PELICAN

General classification

The white pelican is one of the most successful fish-eating birds.

Description

The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. A group, perhaps two dozen birds, will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore.

The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore, beating the water furiously with their wings, driving the fish before them.

When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish, the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal.

As the bird lifts its head, the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed.

Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds, Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years.

 

Topic: THE WHALE

Whales are sea-livings mammals. They therefore breathe air but cannot survive on land.

Some species are very large indeed and the blue whale, which can exceed 30 meters in length, is the largest animal to have lived on earth.

Superficially, the whale looks rather like a fish, but there are important differences in its external structure; its tail consists of a pair of broad, flat horizontal paddles (the tail of a fish is vertical) and it has a single nostril on top of its large, broad head.

The skin is smooth and shiny and beneath it lies a layer of fat (blubber).

It can be up to 30   meters in thickness and serves heat and body fluids.

Answer the following questions:

  1. 1.   What group of animals do whales belong to?
  2. 2.   How long is a whale’s body?
  3. 3.   Why can’t whales survive on land for a long time although they breath air?
    1. 4.   What is the difference between whales and fish?

 

—ooo0ooo—

 

G. ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION

(Eksposisi Analitis)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif (communicative purpose/social function):

The communicative purpose/social function of analytical exposition is to persuade the reader or listener that something is the case

(Untuk membujuk, meyakinkan atau mempengaruhi pembaca atau pendengar bahwa sesuatumerupakan kasus)

Kadang juga dikatakan bahwa analytical exposition dimaksudkan untuk mempengaruhi audience / pendengar atau pembaca bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian)

b. Struktur Teks (generic structure):

1. Pernyataan pendapat         (Thesis)

2.Argumen (arguments), terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan

3.“Elaboration”; Penguatan pernyataan (Reiteration)

c. Ciri Kebahasaan (linguistic features):

Menggunakan:

1. General nouns, misalnya car, pollution, leaded petrol car, dsb.

2. Abstract nouns, misalnya policy, government, dsb.

3. Technical verbs, misalnya species of animals, dsb.

4. Relating verbs, misalnya It is important, dsb.

5. Action verbs, misalnya She must save, dsb.

6. Thinking verbs, misalnya Many people believe, dsb

7. Modal verbs, misalnya we must preserve, dsb.

8. Modal adverbs, misalnya certainly, we, dsb.

9. Connectives, misalnya firstly, secondly,dsb.

10. Bahasa evaluatif, misalnya important, valuable, trustworthy, dsb.

11. Kalimat pasif (passive voice)

 

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

Topic: “The Importance of English Language”

   I personally think that English is the world’s most important language. Why do I say that?

    Firstly, English is an international language. It is spoken by many people all over the world, either as a first or second language.

    Secondly, English is also the key which opens door to scientific and technical knowledge, which is needed for the economic and political development of many countries in the world.

    Thirdly, English is a top requirement of those seeking for jobs. Applicants who master either active or passive English are more favorable than those who don’t.

    From the facts above, it is obvious that everybody needs to learn to greet the global era.

(adapted from: Student Book for SMA, Balai Pustaka)

Questions:

  1. 1.    Why do you say that English is the world’s most important language?
  2. 2.    Where does the text adapt from?

H. HORTATORY EXPOSITION

(Eksposisi Hortatori)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose):

To persuade the reader or listener that something should be/shouldn’t be the case

(Untuk membujuk, meyakinkan atau mempengaruhi pembaca atau pendengar bahwa sesuatu seharusnya/tdk seharusnya demikian

b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):

 Thesis (pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan)

 Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan, dan mengarah ke rekomendasi

 Recommendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya.

c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Feature):

 Terfokus ke pembicara / penulis yang mengangkat isu. Menggunakan:

 

 Abstract nouns, misalnya policy, government,dsb.

 Technical verbs, misalnya species of animals, dsb.

 Relating verbs, misalnya should be, doesn’t seem to have been,dsb.

 Action verbs, misalnya We must act, dsb.

 Thinking verbs, misalnya I believe, dsb

 Modal verbs, misalnya we must preserve, dsb

 Modal adverbs, misalnya certainly, wem dsb.

 Connectives, misalnya firstly, secondly, dsb

 Simple present tense

 Kalimat pasif

 Bahasa evaluatif, misalnya important, valuable, trustworthy, dsb.

2. Contoh Teks:

Topic: “CARS SHOULD BE BANNED IN THE CITY”

Cars should be banned in the city. As we all know, cars create pollution, and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents.

Firstly, cars, as we all know, contribute to most of the pollution in the world. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis, lung cancer, and ‘triggers’ off asthma. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them.

Secondly, the city is very busy. (point) triggers wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city, which causes them to die. Cars today are our roads biggest killers.

 Thirdly, cars are very noisy. If you live in the city, you may find it hard to sleep at night, or concentrate on your homework, and especially talk to someone.

In conclusion, cars should be banned from the city for the reasons listed.

Vocabularies:

  1. 1.  Banned     : dilarang
  2. 2.  Cause       : menyebabkan
  3. 3.  Deaths      : kematian
  4. 4.  Accidents: kecelakaan
  5. 5.  Emit          : memancarkan, mengeluarkan
  6. 6.  Triggers    : memicu
  7. 7.  Wander     : menggeluyur, keliling
  8. 8.  Noisy        : berisik

 

 

Questions:

  1. 1.   In the writer’s opinion what do cars in a city cause?
  2. 2.   What do cars emit?
  3. 3.   Who mostly are the victims in car accidents?
  4. 4.   Which paragraph tells you that cars also cause noice pollution?
  5. 5.   What is the topic of the text?
  6. 6.   What kind of text is the above reading?
  7. 7.   What is the generic structure of the text?

—ooo0ooo—

 

Topic: “CRIME IN CITIES”

            Crime is a serious problem in big cities and it is getting worse every year. This is what police departments around the country said in their reports last week. The subways and the streets are more dangerous. You may not even be safe in your own home.

            Why is the problem so serious now? This is not an easy question to answer. There may not be a single answer. Many problems together seem to make cities so dangerous.

            One of the problems is money. To fight crime a city needs police officers, cars, and guns. These cost a lot of money. But right now cities do not have much extra money. So, there are not enough police officers, cars and guns for the cities.

            Another problem is drugs. Crime studies show that many criminals use and sell drugs. After they start taking drugs, they want to have more. However,drugs are very expensive. So, these people may sell drugs to other people to make money or they may steal money to get more drugs.

            There is an even more important cause of crime. Critics have rich and poor neighborhoods. In the poor neighborhoods, jobs are hard to find. Many young people don’t have much hope for a better life. They only know one way to make a better living, that way is to sell drugs or steal. So, some of these young people become criminals.

            It is not going to be easy to change these crime problems. We must first change many of the laws about drugs. We must change the way cities spend their money. Until then, the crime problem will not go away and we will live our live in fear.

 

Adapted from Reading Power,Beatrice S.M

Addison-Wesley Publishing

Vocabularies:

  1. 1.    crime              kb. 1 kejahatan. 2 kesalahan
  2. 2.    worse                         ks. lih BAD. 1 lebih buruk/jelek. 2 bertambah buruk. 3 lebih jahat. -kk. lebih buruk
  3. 3.    subway          kb. kereta-api dibawah tanah
  4. 4.    safe                kb. peti besi. -ks. 1 aman. 2 tidak berbahaya
  5. 5.    dangerous     ks. berbahaya, membahayakan.
  6. 6.    drug kb.         kb. 1 Med.:  obat-obatan. 2 Narc.: obat bius
  7. 7.    steal               kkt. (stole, stolen) 1 mencuri
  8. 8.    neighborhood kb. lingkungan. in the n. of 1 didekat, disekitar
  9. 9.    criminal          kb. penjahat, narapidana. -ks. 1 kriminal, pidana. c. court pengadilan perkara-perkara pidana. 2 yang bersifat kejahatan, kriminal. c. behavior tingkah laku kriminil

 

–ooo0ooo—

 

I. SPOOF

(Laporan Kejadian Atau Peristiwa Lucu)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose):

To retell an event with humorous twist

(menceritakan kejadian, peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur, yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu plesetan yang lucu (twist).

b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):

 Orientation: memperkenalkan participants (tokoh), waktu, dan tempat

 Events: berisi kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan 1, 2, 3, dst

 Twist: akhir yang tidak terduga atau lucu.

c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features):

 Terfokus pada orang, binatang, benda tertentu;

 Menggunakan action verbs, misalnya eat, run;

 Menggunakan keterangan waktu dan tempat;

 Menggunakan past tense;

 Disusun sesuai dengan urutan kejadian.

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

  • Generic Structure/Text Organization
  • Orientation
  • Event(s)
  • Twist

Topic: Penguin In The Park

Orientation Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin.

Event 1 He took him to a policeman and said, ‘ I have just found this penguin. What should I do?’ The policeman replied, ‘ take him to the zoo’.

Event 2 The next day the policeman saw the same man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked, ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did,’ replied the man.

Twist ‘and it was a great idea because he really enjoyed it, so today I’m taking him to the moviest!

Title: “Michael and His Father”

Okay students. Listen to me. I have a good story. The story is about a boy named Michael. He was ten years old. He was not a very good pupil. Why? Because he didn’t like doing his homework. What did he like then ?Oh, he liked playing in his leisure time. He liked football very much. Do you know why he didn’t like doing his homework? Because he always made a lot of mistakes when he did it.

          Well, one day, his mathematics teacher looked at Michael’s homework and found that all his homework was correct. Wow, that’s a good job! Of course students, the teacher was very pleased and surprised. So, he called Michael to his office and said to him, Michael, you’ve got all your homework right this time. You’re doing great. Well done, Michael. Did your father help you?

          “No, sir” Michael said, “Usually my father did it for me. But last night he was very busy. He had a meeting. So, he couldn’t do my homework. Then, I had to do it by myself.

Vocabularies:

  1. 1.    named            : yg bernama
  2. 2.    leisure time kb. waktu terluang
  3. 3.    pleased          : happy          : senang
  4. 4.    surprised       : heran
  5. 5.    myself                        : saya sendiri

 

Questions:

  1. 1.    Do you find something funny from the story?
  2. 2.    In your opinion, was Michael a clever student or not?
  3. 3.    Who was cleverer, Michael or his father?
  4. 4.    Do you like this kind of story? Why?
  5. 5.    If you were a teacher, would you be angry with Michael?

—ooo0ooo—

 

Title: SWIFT AND HIS SERVANT

Swift, the famous English writer, author of Gulliver’s travel, was one day travelling on a horse back with a servant.

As it was raining , the roads were muddy. In the evening the two travellers came to an inn. Before going to bed, Swift said to his servant: “My boots are dirty, clean them, please”. The servant was rather lazy; besides he was tired, so he went to bed without cleaning his master’s boots.

The next morning, when Swift saw the boots, he exclaimed: “What, you have not cleaned my boots!” The servant looked at him and answered: “Well, Sir, as the weather is very bad, and we are to travel again, if I cleaned them now, they would soon be as dirty as before”.

“Very good, saddle the horses. We we shall start immediately”.

“But please, Sir, we have not had our breakfast yet”

“Oh, never mind! Should you take your breakfast now, you would soon be hungry again.”

Vocabularies:

  1. 1.    Famous          adj well known         : terkenal
  2. 2.    Author                        writer                          : pengarang
  3. 3.    Servant          assistant                    : pelayan
  4. 4.    Muddy           full of mud                 : becek
  5. 5.    Inn                   hotel                            : penginapan
  6. 6.    Boots              high shoes                 : sepatu tinggi
  7. 7.    Besides          also, too                     : juga
  8. 8.    Master            employer                    : majikan
  9. 9.    Exclaimed      cried   shouted          : berteriak

10. Soon               immediately              : segera

11. Excuse            reason                                    : maaf / alas an

  1. 12.  never mind    no objection               : tidak apa

      Answer the following Questions:

  1. 1.    Who was Swift?
  2. 2.    How was he travelling?
  3. 3.    Was he travelling alone?
  4. 4.    What kind of weather were they having?
  5. 5.    Were the roads clean?
  6. 6.    Did Swift give his servant any orders before going to bed?
  7. 7.    What did he tell him to do?
  8. 8.    Was Swift’s servant lazy nor diligent?
  9. 9.    Did he go to bed without doing his job?
  10. Was Swift pleased when he saw his boots had not been cleaned?

 

—ooo0ooo—

 

J. EXPLANATION

(Penjelasan)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose):

To explain the process invloved in the formation or workings of natural or sociocultural phenomena

(menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam, dunia ilmiah, sosial-budaya, atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan).

b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):

 A general statement to position the reader (pernyataan umum untuk memposisikan pembaca).

 A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs (penjelasan yang berurutan tentang mengapa dan bagaimana sesuatu itu terjadi)

 Closing (Penutup)

c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Languistic Features): Menggunakan

 general dan abstract nouns, misalnya word chopping, earthquakes;

 action verbs;

 simple present tense;

 passive voice;

 conjunctions of time dan cause;

 noun phrase, misalnya the large cloud;

 abstract nouns, misalnya the temperature;

 adverbial phrases;

 complex sentences;

 bahasa teknis; kalimat pasif

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

Topic: “Making Paper from Woodchips”

General statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe.

Process explanation (sequenced) Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper.

 

Topic: “How Do Floods Occur?”

          In winter there is snow on the mountains. When spring comes the sun comes out, it shines onto the snow. The snow melts. The melting snow turns into water and flows off the mountain and enters the rivers. The huge amount of water makes the water level rise

          If rocks and concreted areas around rivers they can cause floods. If it rains the rain falls onto the rocks, nothing can soak up the water. The water flows down the rocks and into the river.

          When it rains for a long time the huge amount of rain cannot soak into the soil. The water forms small streams. The streams all lead to the main river and feed it. As the water enters the river the water level rises. If there is not a dam on the bank of the river the river will flood.

Choose the correct answer

1.   The generic structure of text above is:

(A).   general statement – description

(B).    orientation – complication – resolution

(C).   general statement –explanation sequence

(D).   a statement of an issue – arguments – a conclusion

(E).    the goal of the activity – materials needed – steps to do

2.   The text above is called ….

(A).   narrative

(B).    descriptive

(C).   discussion

(D).   procedure

(E).    explanation

—ooo0ooo—

 

K. DISCUSSION

(Diskusi/ Pembahasan)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose):

To present at least two points of views about an issue

(mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang, sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi.

b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):

 Issue: Statement (pernyataan) dan preview

 Arguments for and agaist or statement of differing points of view (Pendapat yang mendukung dan pendapat yang menolak atau pernyataan dari sudut pandang yang berbeda). Terdiri atas: -Point (gagasan pokok) 1 – Elaboration (uraian) Bisa terdiri atas lebih dari satu point dan elaboration.

 Conclusion or recomendation (kesimpulan atau rekomendasi)

c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features): Menggunakan:

 general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori, misalnya uniforms, alcohol, dsb,

 relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan, misalnya smoking is harmful, dsb.

 thinking verbs untuk mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis, misalnya feel, believe, hope, dsb.

 additives, contrastives dan causal connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen, misalnya similarly, on the hand, however, dsb.

 detailed noun groups untuk memberikan informasi secara padu, misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens, dsb.

 modalities, seperti perhaps, must, should, should have been, could be, dsb.

 adverbials of maner, misalnya deliberately, hopefully, dsb.

  1. 3.   Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

 

Topic: “HACKING: PRO AND CONTRA?”

Do you know what a hacker is? Well, a hacker is a person  who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems on computers and they like to stretch the capability of the systems. And you know what, the activities they do in the computers are called ‘hacking’.

So, what’s the problem with ‘hacking and its hackers’? Well, the problem is whether ‘hacking and its hackers’ is legal or illegal? What I mean is that people in the world have many different views about hacking and the hackers. Some of them take sides, but many objects.

To get back to what I was saying previously, let us see the positive points of a hacker, shall we? Although in most places breaking into computer systems is considered illegal, I believe that hackers don’t do anything illegal because they only want to know and try the systems. I dare to say that a hacker likes finding the strengths and the weaknesses of a computer system. They feel proud if they can find the weaknesses. So I don’t really see the crimes in this case. In addition, these hackers sometimes help the police catch the ‘white collar criminals’, such as bank robbers, money launderers, credit card forgers. For example, in 2000, the U.S. hackers caught some Singaporean hackers who made ‘Virus Love’ to break up the programs of the U.S. National Security system.

Nevertheless, those who object to the good points of a hacker say that hacking is a crime. The reason is that some hackers use their brilliant skills to break into banks and other vital institutions where they can get money, destroy information, and the worst thing is they can get secret information and sell it to another country. This is a treachery.

Take for example, in 1994, The U.S. government broke a conspiracy of computer hackers out of Majorca, Spain. These hackers were responsible for accessing and eliminating 190,000 telephone credit card numbers over computer bulletin boards in America and Europe. Seeing this fact, I don’t blame those who think negatively about hackers.

To put the whole thing in a nut shell, I personally think that hackers are not bad people with their brilliant skills. However, they could be bad because of money orientation to get the wealth. That’s just the point.

 

Vocabularies:

  1. 1.    hack kb. 1 orang yang diupah untuk mengerjakan kerja-kerja kesusasteraan. 2 Inf.: taksi. –kkt. 1 menetak. memakuk, memarang. 2 melukai seseorang dengan kasar. Sl.: to h. around ngeluyur. hacking cough batu
  2. 2.    previously sebelumnya
  3. 3.    strength kb. 1 kekuatan. s. of materials kekuatan materi. 2 tenaga. s. of mind tenaga/kekuatan pikiran. 3 daya. tensils s. daya regang. 4 jumlah, persentase (of alcohol)
  4. 4.    dare kb. tantangan. –kkt. berani. –daring kb. keberanian, kenekatan. ks. berani. He’s a d. warrior Ia seorang prajurit pemberani.
  5. 5.    collar kb. 1 kerah. 2 ban leher (anjing dan kuda). –kkt. 1 Inf.: menahan. 2 menangkap. c. stud kancing leher.
  6. 6.    nevertheless kk. namun, meskipun begitu/demikian.
  7. 7.    destroy kkt. memusnahkan, merusakkan, menghancurkan. 2 membinasakan, membunuh (an animal). to d. o.s. membunuh diri.
  8. 8.    treachery kb. (j. -ries) penghianatan.
  9. 9.    eliminate kkt. 1 menghapuskan, melenyapkan (a problem). 2 menyisihkan. 3 membersihkan, mengeluarkan. 4 (kill) menyingkirkan, membunuh.

10. blame kb. kesalahan. –kkt. menyalahkan. –blamed ks. Inf.: jahanam, terkutuk.

 

—ooo0ooo—

 

L. REVIEW

(Ulasan Atau Tinjauan)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose):

To critique an art work, event for a public audience. Such works of art include movies, TV shows, books, plays, operas, recordings, exhibitions, concerts, and ballets

(melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar khalayak ramai, misalnya acara TV, buku, drama, film, opera, konser, dan lain sebagainya)

b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structures):

 Orientation: menempatkan suatu karya dalam konteks umum dan khusus, seringkali dengan membandingkannya dengan yang lain.

 Interpretative recount: merangkum plot dan/atau memberikan penjelasan tentang bagaimana suatu karya ditinjau.

 Evaluation: memberikan penilaian atau evaluasi dari suatu karya dan/atau kinerjanya atau produknya

 Evaluative Summation: berupa rangkuman pandangan si peninjau.

c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features):

 Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; Menggunakan:

 adjectives menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good;

 klausa panjang dan kompleks;

 metafor. Generic Structure/Text Organization Orientation: menempatkan suatu karya dalam konteks umum dan khusus, seringkali dengan membandingkannya dengan yang lain. Interpretative recount: merangkum plot dan/atau memberikan penjelasan tentang bagaimana suatu karya ditinjau Evaluation: memberikan penilaian atau evaluasi dari suatu karya dan/atau kinerjanya atau produknya Evaluative summation: berupa rangkuman pandangan si peninjau

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks

Topic: Harry Potter:

Order of the Phoenix I absolutely love the Harry Potter series, and all of the books will always hold a special place in my heart. I have to say that of all of the books, however, this was not my favorite. When the series began it was as much of a “feel good” experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. The stories were bright, fast-paced, intriguing, and ultimately satisfying.

Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. In some instances this works…you feel a whole new level of intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. I was truly moved by the last page. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary, depressing feel.

The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here, and parts of it do seem long, as if we’re reading all about Harry “just hanging out” instead of having his usual adventures.

Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house, for example – housekeeping is still housekeeping, magical or no, and I’m not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it.

A few other changes in this book – the “real” world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books, and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book, especially with being a teenager and all, but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic.

He goes from being a warm-hearted, considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend’s heads off over nothing. It just seemed like it didn’t fit with his character, like he turned into a walking cliché of the “angry teen” overnight.

The “real” story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book, and this part I loved. I actually liked the ending (and yes, I cried!) as sad as it was. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. Still a really good book, with some editing it would have been great.

Note: Please find out difficult words/ vocabularies!

—ooo0ooo—

M. ANECDOTE

(Cerita Lucu)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (communicative/social purpose):

The communicative purpose of the text is to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing accident

(menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa nyata yang bertujuan menghibur).

b. Struktur Teks (generic structure):

 Abstract: menandai atau menunjukkan penceritaan kembali kejadian yang tidak biasa.

 Pengenalan (Orientation): menunjukkan kejadian-kejadian

 Krisis (crisis): Menjabarkan secara rinci kejadian yang tidak biasa tersebut.

 Tindakan (incident): Reaksi atau tanggapan terhadap krisis

 Koda (Coda): Refleksi atau evaluasi dari kejadian tersebut.

Generic Structure/Text Organization:

Abstact Orientation Crisis Reaction Coda

c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Feature):

Menggunakan:

 seruan/kata seru, pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! And do you know what? It’s awful, isn’t it? dsb.

 action verbs, misalnya go, write, dsb.

 conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu, seperti then, afterwards, dsb.

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

  1. 1.   Title: “Snake in the Bath”

Abstract       How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too!

Orientation  We had just moved into a new house, which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first, so we set to, and turned on the tap.

Crisis Suddenly to my horror, a snake’s head appeared in the plug-hole. Then out slithered the rest of his long thin body. He twisted and turned on the slippery bottom of the bath, spitting and hissing at us.

Reaction       For an instant I stood there quite paralysed. Then I yelled for my husband, who luckily came running and killed the snake with the handle of a broom. Anna, who was only there at the time, was quite interested in the whole business. Indeed I had to pull her out of the way or she’d probably have leant over the bath to get a better look!

Coda             Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly before running the bath water.

Vocabularies:

  1. 1.  Nasty        : buruk
  2. 2.  Mess         : berantakan
  3. 3.  Plug hole  :Lubang penyumbat
  4. 4.  Slithered   : merayap
  5. 5.  Twisted     : membelit
  6. 6.  Spitting     : meludah
  7. 7.  Hissing     :mendesis
  8. 8.  To pull out: mencabut

 

  1. Title: “TIT FOR TAT”

          An undergraduate asked a friend to lend him a certain book which he desired to consult. The latter, who was not very obliging, answered that he had no objection to his friend’s using his book, but that he could not permit it to be taken out of his room.

          As it was impossible to make him change his mind, the student was put to much inconvenience.

          A few weeks later, that selfish man came round to his friend, “ You may use my pocker in my room as much as you like, but I cannot permit you to take it elsewhere.

Answer the following Questions:

  1. 1.   What phrase expresses that we treat others as they treat us?
  2. 2.   What did the yong man ask of his friend?
  3. 3.   Did he mean to return the book again?
  4. 4.   What did he want it for?
  5. 5.   Did the owner of the book allow his friend to consult it?
  6. 6.   What did he object to?
  7. 7.   Was his friend selfish or kind?
  8. 8.   What is the difference between borrow and lend?
  9. 9.   How did the student take revenge?

—ooo0ooo—

 

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